By M. C. Ricklefs
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present
Demak's conquests compelled the submission of other major ports and reached to many inland areas of East Java which were probably not yet Islamised. The sources do not allow certainty about these campaigns, but the following conquests seem to have occurred. Tuban was conquered c. 1527. This was a very old port of Majapahit mentioned by Chinese sources as early as the eleventh century; it was already Islamised before 1527, but nonetheless had remained loyal to the Hindu-Buddhist ruler in the interior.
In 1600 they won a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon, but only with great difficulty. The arrival of the Dutch sealed their fate. In 1600 the Dutch joined the Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch were to have the sole right to purchase the spices of Hitu. The Portuguese responded to their worsening situation in 1602 with a major (and last) expeditionary force from Malacca, which temporarily reimposed an appearance of Portuguese dominance in much of Maluku. But in February 1605 a VOC fleet renewed the alliance with Hitu and prepared to attack the Portuguese fort on Ambon.
The first Sunan and his successors are credited with a leading role in the spread of Islam to Lombok, Makasar, Kutai (East Kalimantan) and Pasir (Southeast Kalimantan), through conquest, marriages or the mission work of former students. There were clearly links between Giri and Maluku. Zainal Abidin, the ruler of Ternate in 1486-1500, is said to have been a student of Sunan Giri in his youth, as late as 1618 Ambonese continued to send tribute in cloves to Giri, and the Hituese leader Kakiali (d.
A History of Modern Indonesia: c. 1300 to the Present by M. C. Ricklefs