By Seung-young Kim (auth.)
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Extra info for American Diplomacy and Strategy toward Korea and Northeast Asia, 1882–1950 and After: Perception of Polarity and US Commitment to a Periphery
But Korea’s domestic political situation still stagnated. Reform efforts of enlightened intellectuals were blocked by the monarch and the conservatives, and the court-led reform, launched in 1897, also remained superficial. 50 The most conspicuous development during that period was the emergence of the Independence Club movement, led by enlightened young intellectuals and former bureaucrats. The club was inaugurated on July 2, 1896, when the king was still in asylum in the Russian legation. It sought to encourage reform through such activities as publications, lectures, memorials, and demonstrations.
When Japanese influence became dominant after the SinoJapanese War, he supported Russia. When Russian influence became dominant during Kojong’s flight to the Russian legation, he supported Japan along with other Western diplomats in Seoul. 65 For such reasons, he thought that the president’s policy was misguided by the advice of Rockhill; thus he tried to persuade the president through a direct interview with him in Washington. Allen indeed had a frank discussion with Roosevelt by visiting the White House in late September 1903, but his views were completely countered by the president, who preferred to support Japan along with Britain.
In the Far East, such a sense of civilizing missions neatly matched with his concern about maintaining a balance of power. 44 Roosevelt admired Japan for its efficiency, success in modernization, and the fighting qualities of its people, thus he regarded Japan as an exemplary fusion between Western and Asian civilization. Yet, in strategic calculation, Roosevelt remained concerned about the possibility of a Japanese move against American interest. As assistant secretary of the Navy from 1897 until 1898, he expressed concern about the Japanese threat to Hawaii and the Philippines, and such concern remained in his mind throughout the Russo-Japanese war.
American Diplomacy and Strategy toward Korea and Northeast Asia, 1882–1950 and After: Perception of Polarity and US Commitment to a Periphery by Seung-young Kim (auth.)